Changelog history


  • fix issue380: properly perform substitution again. Thanks Ian Cordasco.


  • remove PYTHONPATH from environment during the install phase because a tox-run should not have hidden dependencies and the test commands will also not see a PYTHONPATH. If this causes unforeseen problems it may be reverted in a bugfix release. Thanks Jason R. Coombs.
  • fix issue352: prevent a configuration where envdir==toxinidir and refine docs to warn people about changing “envdir”. Thanks Oliver Bestwalter and holger krekel.
  • fix issue375, fix issue330: warn against integration as “ test” should really just test with the current interpreter. Thanks Ronny Pfannschmidt.
  • fix issue302: allow cross-testenv substitution where we substitute with {x,y} generative syntax. Thanks Andrew Pashkin.
  • fix issue212: allow escaping curly brace chars “{” and “}” if you need the chars “{” and “}” to appear in your commands or other ini values. Thanks John Vandenberg.
  • addresses issue66: add –workdir option to override where tox stores its ”.tox” directory and all of the virtualenv environment. Thanks Danring.
  • introduce per-venv list_dependencies_command which defaults to “pip freeze” to obtain the list of installed packages. Thanks Ted Shaw, Holger Krekel.
  • close issue66: add documentation to jenkins page on how to avoid “too long shebang” lines when calling pip from tox. Note that we can not use “python -m pip install X” by default because the latter adds the CWD and pip will think X is installed if it is there. “pip install X” does not do that.
  • new list_dependencies_command to influence how tox determines which dependencies are installed in a testenv.
  • (experimental) New feature: When a search for a config file fails, tox tries loading setup.cfg with a section prefix of “tox”.
  • fix issue275: Introduce hooks tox_runtest_pre` and tox_runtest_post which run before and after the tests of a venv, respectively. Thanks to Matthew Schinckel and itxaka serrano.
  • fix issue317: evaluate minversion before tox config is parsed completely. Thanks Sachi King for the PR.
  • added the “extras” environment option to specify the extras to use when doing the sdist or develop install. Contributed by Alex Grönholm.
  • use pytest-catchlog instead of pytest-capturelog (latter is not maintained, uses deprecated pytest API)


  • fix issue314: fix command invocation with .py scripts on windows.
  • fix issue279: allow cross-section substitution when the value contains posargs. Thanks Sachi King for the PR.


  • fix issue294: re-allow cross-section substitution for setenv.


  • DEPRECATE use of “indexservers” in tox.ini. It complicates the internal code and it is recommended to rather use the devpi system for managing indexes for pip.
  • fix issue285: make setenv processing fully lazy to fix regressions of tox-2.2.X and so that we can now have testenv attributes like “basepython” depend on environment variables that are set in a setenv section. Thanks Nelfin for some tests and initial work on a PR.
  • allow “#” in commands. This is slightly incompatible with commands sections that used a comment after a “” line continuation. Thanks David Stanek for the PR.
  • fix issue289: fix build_sphinx target, thanks Barry Warsaw.
  • fix issue252: allow environment names with special characters. Thanks Julien Castets for initial PR and patience.
  • introduce experimental tox_testenv_create(venv, action) and tox_testenv_install_deps(venv, action) hooks to allow plugins to do additional work on creation or installing deps. These hooks are experimental mainly because of the involved “venv” and session objects whose current public API is not fully guranteed.
  • internal: push some optional object creation into tests because tox core doesn’t need it.


  • fix bug where {envdir} substitution could not be used in setenv if that env value is then used in {basepython}. Thanks Florian Bruhin.


  • fix issue265 and add LD_LIBRARY_PATH to passenv on linux by default because otherwise the python interpreter might not start up in certain configurations (redhat software collections). Thanks David Riddle.
  • fix issue246: fix regression in config parsing by reordering such that {envbindir} can be used again in tox.ini. Thanks Olli Walsh.
  • fix issue99: the {env:...} substitution now properly uses environment settings from the setenv section. Thanks Itxaka Serrano.
  • fix issue281: make –force-dep work when urls are present in dependency configs. Thanks Glyph Lefkowitz for reporting.
  • fix issue174: add new ignore_outcome testenv attribute which can be set to True in which case it will produce a warning instead of an error on a failed testenv command outcome. Thanks Rebecka Gulliksson for the PR.
  • fix issue280: properly skip missing interpreter if {envsitepackagesdir} is present in commands. Thanks BB:ceridwenv


  • fix platform skipping for detox
  • report skipped platforms as skips in the summary


  • fix issue258, fix issue248, fix issue253: for non-test commands (installation, venv creation) we pass in the full invocation environment.
  • remove experimental –set-home option which was hardly used and hackily implemented (if people want home-directory isolation we should figure out a better way to do it, possibly through a plugin)
  • fix issue259: passenv is now a line-list which allows to intersperse comments. Thanks stefano-m.
  • allow envlist to be a multi-line list, to intersperse comments and have long envlist settings split more naturally. Thanks Andre Caron.
  • introduce a TOX_TESTENV_PASSENV setting which is honored when constructing the set of environment variables for test environments. Thanks Marc Abramowitz for pushing in this direction.


  • fix issue247: tox now passes the LANG variable from the tox invocation environment to the test environment by default.
  • add SYSTEMDRIVE into default passenv on windows to allow pip6 to work. Thanks Michael Krause.


  • fix wheel packaging to properly require argparse on py26.


  • (new) introduce environment variable isolation: tox now only passes the PATH and PIP_INDEX_URL variable from the tox invocation environment to the test environment and on Windows also SYSTEMROOT, PATHEXT, TEMP and TMP whereas on unix additionally TMPDIR is passed. If you need to pass through further environment variables you can use the new passenv setting, a space-separated list of environment variable names. Each name can make use of fnmatch-style glob patterns. All environment variables which exist in the tox-invocation environment will be copied to the test environment.

  • a new --help-ini option shows all possible testenv settings and their defaults.

  • (new) introduce a way to specify on which platform a testenvironment is to execute: the new per-venv “platform” setting allows to specify a regular expression which is matched against sys.platform. If platform is set and doesn’t match the platform spec in the test environment the test environment is ignored, no setup or tests are attempted.

  • (new) add per-venv “ignore_errors” setting, which defaults to False.

    If True, a non-zero exit code from one command will be ignored and further commands will be executed (which was the default behavior in tox < 2.0). If False (the default), then a non-zero exit code from one command will abort execution of commands for that environment.

  • show and store in json the version dependency information for each venv

  • remove the long-deprecated “distribute” option as it has no effect these days.

  • fix issue233: avoid hanging with tox-setuptools integration example. Thanks simonb.

  • fix issue120: allow substitution for the commands section. Thanks Volodymyr Vitvitski.

  • fix issue235: fix AttributeError with –installpkg. Thanks Volodymyr Vitvitski.

  • tox has now somewhat pep8 clean code, thanks to Volodymyr Vitvitski.

  • fix issue240: allow to specify empty argument list without it being rewritten to ”.”. Thanks Daniel Hahler.

  • introduce experimental (not much documented yet) plugin system based on pytest’s externalized “pluggy” system. See tox/ for the current hooks.

  • introduce parser.add_testenv_attribute() to register an ini-variable for testenv sections. Can be used from plugins through the tox_add_option hook.

  • rename internal files – tox offers no external API except for the experimental plugin hooks, use tox internals at your own risk.

  • DEPRECATE distshare in documentation


  • backout ability that –force-dep substitutes name/versions in requirement files due to various issues. This fixes issue228, fixes issue230, fixes issue231 which popped up with 1.9.1.


  • use a file instead of a pipe for command output in “–result-json”. Fixes some termination issues with python2.6.
  • allow –force-dep to override dependencies in “-r” requirements files. Thanks Sontek for the PR.
  • fix issue227: use “-m virtualenv” instead of “-mvirtualenv” to make it work with pyrun. Thanks Marc-Andre Lemburg.


  • fix issue193: Remove --pre from the default install_command; by default tox will now only install final releases from PyPI for unpinned dependencies. Use pip_pre = true in a testenv or the --pre command-line option to restore the previous behavior.
  • fix issue199: fill resultlog structure ahead of virtualenv creation
  • refine determination if we run from Jenkins, thanks Borge Lanes.
  • echo output to stdout when --report-json is used
  • fix issue11: add a skip_install per-testenv setting which prevents the installation of a package. Thanks Julian Krause.
  • fix issue124: ignore command exit codes; when a command has a “-” prefix, tox will ignore the exit code of that command
  • fix issue198: fix broken envlist settings, e.g. {py26,py27}{-lint,}
  • fix issue191: lessen factor-use checks


  • fix issue190: allow setenv to be empty.
  • allow escaping curly braces with “”. Thanks Marc Abramowitz for the PR.
  • allow ”.” names in environment names such that “py27-django1.7” is a valid environment name. Thanks Alex Gaynor and Alex Schepanovski.
  • report subprocess exit code when execution fails. Thanks Marius Gedminas.


  • new multi-dimensional configuration support. Many thanks to Alexander Schepanovski for the complete PR with docs. And to Mike Bayer and others for testing and feedback.
  • fix issue148: remove “__PYVENV_LAUNCHER__” from os.environ when starting subprocesses. Thanks Steven Myint.
  • fix issue152: set VIRTUAL_ENV when running test commands, thanks Florian Ludwig.
  • better report if we can’t get version_info from an interpreter executable. Thanks Floris Bruynooghe.


  • fix issue150: parse {posargs} more like we used to do it pre 1.7.0. The 1.7.0 behaviour broke a lot of OpenStack projects. See PR85 and the issue discussions for (far) more details, hopefully resulting in a more refined behaviour in the 1.8 series. And thanks to Clark Boylan for the PR.
  • fix issue59: add a config variable skip-missing-interpreters as well as command line option --skip-missing-interpreters which won’t fail the build if Python interpreters listed in tox.ini are missing. Thanks Alexandre Conrad for PR104.
  • fix issue164: better traceback info in case of failing test commands. Thanks Marc Abramowitz for PR92.
  • support optional env variable substitution, thanks Morgan Fainberg for PR86.
  • limit python hashseed to 1024 on Windows to prevent possible memory errors. Thanks March Schlaich for the PR90.


  • fix issue162: don’t list python 2.5 as compatibiliy/supported
  • fix issue158 and fix issue155: windows/virtualenv properly works now: call virtualenv through “python -m virtualenv” with the same interpreter which invoked tox. Thanks Chris Withers, Ionel Maries Cristian.


  • don’t lookup “pip-script” anymore but rather just “pip” on windows as this is a pip implementation detail and changed with pip-1.5. It might mean that tox-1.7 is not able to install a different pip version into a virtualenv anymore.
  • drop Python2.5 compatibility because it became too hard due to the setuptools-2.0 dropping support. tox now has no support for creating python2.5 based environments anymore and all internal special-handling has been removed.
  • merged PR81: new option –force-dep which allows to override tox.ini specified dependencies in setuptools-style. For example “–force-dep ‘django<1.6’” will make sure that any environment using “django” as a dependency will get the latest 1.5 release. Thanks Bruno Oliveria for the complete PR.
  • merged PR125: tox now sets “PYTHONHASHSEED” to a random value and offers a “–hashseed” option to repeat a test run with a specific seed. You can also use –hashsheed=noset to instruct tox to leave the value alone. Thanks Chris Jerdonek for all the work behind this.
  • fix issue132: removing zip_safe setting (so it defaults to false) to allow installation of tox via easy_install/eggs. Thanks Jenisys.
  • fix issue126: depend on virtualenv>=1.11.2 so that we can rely (hopefully) on a pip version which supports –pre. (tox by default uses to –pre). also merged in PR84 so that we now call “virtualenv” directly instead of looking up interpreters. Thanks Ionel Maries Cristian. This also fixes issue140.
  • fix issue130: you can now set install_command=easy_install {opts} {packages} and expect it to work for repeated tox runs (previously it only worked when always recreating). Thanks jenisys for precise reporting.
  • fix issue129: tox now uses Popen(..., universal_newlines=True) to force creation of unicode stdout/stderr streams. fixes a problem on specific platform configs when creating virtualenvs with Python3.3. Thanks Jorgen Schäfer or investigation and solution sketch.
  • fix issue128: enable full substitution in install_command, thanks for the PR to Ronald Evers
  • rework and simplify “commands” parsing and in particular posargs substitutions to avoid various win32/posix related quoting issues.
  • make sure that the –installpkg option trumps any usedevelop settings in tox.ini or
  • introduce –no-network to tox’s own test suite to skip tests requiring networks
  • introduce –sitepackages to force sitepackages=True in all environments.
  • fix issue105 – don’t depend on an existing HOME directory from tox tests.


  • fix issue119: {envsitepackagesdir} is now correctly computed and has a better test to prevent regression.
  • fix issue116: make 1.6 introduced behaviour of changing to a per-env HOME directory during install activities dependent on “–set-home” for now. Should re-establish the old behaviour when no option is given.
  • fix issue118: correctly have two tests use realpath(). Thanks Barry Warsaw.
  • fix test runs on environments without a home directory (in this case we use toxinidir as the homedir)
  • fix issue117: python2.5 fix: don’t use --insecure option because its very existence depends on presence of “ssl”. If you want to support python2.5/pip1.3.1 based test environments you need to install ssl and/or use PIP_INSECURE=1 through setenv. section.
  • fix issue102: change to {toxinidir} when installing dependencies. this allows to use relative path like in “-rrequirements.txt”.


  • fix issue35: add new EXPERIMENTAL “install_command” testenv-option to configure the installation command with options for dep/pkg install. Thanks Carl Meyer for the PR and docs.
  • fix issue91: python2.5 support by vendoring the virtualenv-1.9.1 script and forcing pip<1.4. Also the default [py25] environment modifies the default installer_command (new config option) to use pip without the “–pre” option which was introduced with pip-1.4 and is now required if you want to install non-stable releases. (tox defaults to install with “–pre” everywhere).
  • during installation of dependencies HOME is now set to a pseudo location ({envtmpdir}/pseudo-home). If an index url was specified a .pydistutils.cfg file will be written with an index_url setting so that packages defining setup_requires dependencies will not silently use your HOME-directory settings or
  • fix issue1: empty setup files are properly detected, thanks Anthon van der Neuth
  • remove for now because it is broken.
  • fix issue109 and fix issue111: multiple “-e” options are now combined (previously the last one would win). Thanks Anthon van der Neut.
  • add –result-json option to write out detailed per-venv information into a json report file to be used by upstream tools.
  • add new config options usedevelop and skipsdist as well as a command line option --develop to install the package-under-test in develop mode. thanks Monty Tailor for the PR.
  • always unset PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTE because newer setuptools doesn’t like it
  • if a HOMEDIR cannot be determined, use the toxinidir.
  • refactor interpreter information detection to live in new tox/ file, tests in tests/


  • fix issue104: use setuptools by default, instead of distribute, now that setuptools has distribute merged.
  • make sure test commands are searched first in the virtualenv
  • re-fix issue2 - add whitelist_externals to be used in [testenv*] sections, allowing to avoid warnings for commands such as make, used from the commands value.
  • fix issue97 - allow substitutions to reference from other sections (thanks Krisztian Fekete)
  • fix issue92 - fix {envsitepackagesdir} to actually work again
  • show (test) command that is being executed, thanks Lukasz Balcerzak
  • re-license tox to MIT license
  • depend on virtualenv-1.9.1
  • rename README.txt to README.rst to make bitbucket happier


  • use instead of pip.exe on win32 to avoid the lock exe file on execution issue (thanks Philip Thiem)
  • introduce -l|–listenv option to list configured environments (thanks Lukasz Balcerzak)
  • fix downloadcache determination to work according to docs: Only make pip use a download cache if PIP_DOWNLOAD_CACHE or a downloadcache=PATH testenv setting is present. (The ENV setting takes precedence)
  • fix issue84 - pypy on windows creates a bin not a scripts venv directory (thanks Lukasz Balcerzak)
  • experimentally introduce –installpkg=PATH option to install a package rather than create/install an sdist package. This will still require and use tox.ini and tests from the current working dir (and not from the remote package).
  • substitute {envsitepackagesdir} with the package installation directory (closes #72) (thanks g2p)
  • issue #70 remove PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE workaround now that virtualenv behaves properly (thanks g2p)
  • merged tox-quickstart command, contributed by Marc Abramowitz, which generates a default tox.ini after asking a few questions
  • fix #48 - win32 detection of pypy and other interpreters that are on PATH (thanks Gustavo Picon)
  • fix grouping of index servers, it is now done by name instead of indexserver url, allowing to use it to separate dependencies into groups even if using the same default indexserver.
  • look for “tox.ini” files in parent dirs of current dir (closes #34)
  • the “py” environment now by default uses the current interpreter (sys.executable) make tox’ own test execute tests with it (closes #46)
  • change tests to not rely on os.path.expanduser (closes #60), also make mock session return args[1:] for more precise checking (closes #61) thanks to Barry Warsaw for both.


  • fix some tests which fail if /tmp is a symlink to some other place
  • “python test” now runs tox tests via tox :) also added an example on how to do it for your project.


  • fix issue41 better quoting on windows - you can now use “<” and “>” in deps specifications, thanks Chris Withers for reporting


  • fix issue26 - no warnings on absolute or relative specified paths for commands
  • fix issue33 - commentchars are ignored in key-value settings allowing for specifying commands like: python -c “import sys ; print sys” which would formerly raise irritating errors because the ”;” was considered a comment
  • tweak and improve reporting
  • refactor reporting and virtualenv manipulation to be more accessible from 3rd party tools
  • support value substitution from other sections with the {[section]key} syntax
  • fix issue29 - correctly point to pytest explanation for importing modules fully qualified
  • fix issue32 - use –system-site-packages and don’t pass –no-site-packages
  • add python3.3 to the default env list, so early adopters can test
  • drop python2.4 support (you can still have your tests run on
  • fix the links/checkout howtos in the docs python-2.4, just tox itself requires 2.5 or higher.


  • fix: allow to specify wildcard filesystem paths when specifying dependencies such that tox searches for the highest version
  • fix issue issue21: clear PIP_REQUIRES_VIRTUALENV which avoids pip installing to the wrong environment, thanks to bb’s streeter
  • make the install step honour a testenv’s setenv setting (thanks Ralf Schmitt)


  • remove the that was distributed with tox and depend on >=virtualenv-1.6.4 (possible now since the latter fixes a few bugs that the inlining tried to work around)
  • fix issue10: work around UnicodeDecodeError when invoking pip (thanks Marc Abramowitz)
  • fix a problem with parsing {posargs} in tox commands (spotted by goodwill)
  • fix the warning check for commands to be installed in testenvironment (thanks Michael Foord for reporting)


  • fix issue5 - don’t require argparse for python versions that have it
  • fix issue6 - recreate virtualenv if installing dependencies failed
  • fix issue3 - fix example on frontpage
  • fix issue2 - warn if a test command does not come from the test environment
  • fixed/enhanced: except for initial install always call “-U –no-deps” for installing the sdist package to ensure that a package gets upgraded even if its version number did not change. (reported on TIP mailing list and IRC)
  • inline (1.6.1) script to avoid a number of issues, particularly failing to install python3 environments from a python2 virtualenv installation.
  • rework and enhance docs for display on


  • move repository and toxbootstrap links to
  • fix issue7: introduce a “minversion” directive such that tox bails out if it does not have the correct version.
  • fix issue24: introduce a way to set environment variables for for test commands (thanks Chris Rose)
  • fix issue22: require virtualenv-1.6.1, obsoleting virtualenv5 (thanks Jannis Leidel) and making things work with pypy-1.5 and python3 more seamlessly
  • (used by jenkins build slaves) now follows the latest release of virtualenv
  • fix issue20: document format of URLs for specifying dependencies
  • fix issue19: substitute Hudson for Jenkins everywhere following the renaming of the project. NOTE: if you used the special [tox:hudson] section it will now need to be named [tox:jenkins].
  • fix issue 23 / apply some ReST fixes
  • change the positional argument specifier to use {posargs:} syntax and fix issues #15 and #10 by refining the argument parsing method (Chris Rose)
  • remove use of inipkg lazy importing logic - the namespace/imports are anyway very small with tox.
  • fix a fspath related assertion to work with debian installs which uses symlinks
  • show path of the underlying virtualenv invocation and bootstrap into a working subdir
  • added a CONTRIBUTORS file


  • fix pip-installation mixups by always unsetting PIP_RESPECT_VIRTUALENV (thanks Armin Ronacher)
  • issue1: Add a script for tox, thanks to Sridhar Ratnakumar
  • added support for working with different and multiple PyPI indexservers.
  • new option: -r|–recreate to force recreation of virtualenv
  • depend on py>=1.4.0 which does not contain or install the py.test anymore which is now a separate distribution “pytest”.
  • show logfile content if there is an error (makes CI output more readable)


  • work around a virtualenv limitation which crashes if PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE is set.
  • run pip/easy installs from the environment log directory, avoids naming clashes between env names and dependencies (thanks ronny)
  • require a more recent version of py lib
  • refactor and refine config detection to work from a single file and to detect the case where a python installation overwrote an old one and resulted in a new executable. This invalidates the existing virtualenvironment now.
  • change all internal source to strip trailing whitespaces


  • use virtualenv5 (my own fork of virtualenv3) for now to create python3 environments, fixes a couple of issues and makes tox more likely to work with Python3 (on non-windows environments)
  • add sitepackages option for testenv sections so that environments can be created with access to globals (default is not to have access, i.e. create environments with --no-site-packages.
  • addressing issue4: always prepend venv-path to PATH variable when calling subprocesses
  • fix issue2: exit with proper non-zero return code if there were errors or test failures.
  • added unittest2 examples contributed by Michael Foord
  • only allow ‘True’ or ‘False’ for boolean config values (lowercase / uppercase is irrelevant)
  • recreate virtualenv on changed configurations


  • fix OSX related bugs that could cause the caller’s environment to get screwed (sorry). tox was using the same file as virtualenv for tracking the Python executable dependency and there also was confusion wrt links. this should be fixed now.
  • fix long description, thanks Michael Foord


  • initial release